This research page is being written anew.
REVISE: Realizing that over five hundred species of insects have been identified in fruit orchards presents an immediate challenge to our understanding. Beneficial insects help with some aspects of fruit production, but admittedly, the perplexity of curculio and fruit moths often lie beyond the control of natural predators alone.
Gentler spray options in these last 20 years have opened the door on our ability to 'negotiate' a harvest balance with bugs. Orchard architecture also plays an increasing important role in integrated orchard planning: Block shape, choice of variety and tree size on borders, trap tree placement, and surrounding habitat influence insect dynamics to varying degrees.
for holinsects-2 - LEFT
1920 USDA Roundheader Apple Borer Bulletin: https://ia803205.us.archive.org/32/items/roundheadedapple847broo/roundheadedapple847broo.pdf
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